Overlapping circles, rippling out, representing the spread and influence of CSS variables.

More and more developers are starting to use CSS variables, or as they are more correctly known, custom properties, in production projects. Native CSS custom properties provide several clear benefits over preprocessor variables and provide the power to achieve things like live theming which were previously much more difficult.

I want to take a quick look at the benefits of CSS custom properties and then go over some lesser known features and tricks that may come in handy while using them.

Benefits of CSS Variables

They’re Native

This one is obvious, but important. You can use CSS custom properties without the need for a preprocessor. The tooling around CSS has grown in complexity over the last several years but we may now be looking at a simplification as more features are adopted into CSS proper.

They’re Live

Preprocessor variables are not actually live in the browser. They are evaluated when the CSS is compiled. Redefining a variable within a media query will do nothing. With CSS custom properties, the property actually lives in the browser so it can be redefined in media queries, or with JavaScript.

This also means that all variable expressions and calc statements using CSS custom properties will be recalculated when the variable is redefined.

Here we are redefining a grid gutter within a media query and using that custom property inside calc statements:

:root {
    --grid-gutter: 1rem;

@media (min-width: 600px) {
    :root {
        --grid-gutter: 1.25rem;

.grid {
    display: grid;
    grid-gap: var(--grid-gutter);
    margin-left: calc(-1 * var(--grid-gutter));
    margin-right: calc(-1 * var(--grid-gutter));

They Cascade

Since preprocessor variables don’t run in the browser and do not interact with markup, they have no knowledge of the DOM. Therefore they cannot be scoped to DOM elements. CSS custom properties, on the other hand, do have this knowledge. CSS custom properties can be scoped to particular elements, or classes on elements.

A clear use case for this is theme switching:

:root {
    --body-background-color: white;
    --body-text-color: black;

body {
    background-color: var(--body-background-color);
    color: var(--body-text-color);

.dark {
    --body-background-color: black;
    --body-text-color: white;

They Work Anywhere

Preprocessor variables do not work in plain CSS or with other preprocessors so their shareability is limited. Because CSS custom properties are native, they can be used with any preprocessor and can be accessed and defined through JavaScript.

Here’s an example of overriding default Bootstrap Sass typography variables to use custom properties.

$font-size-h1: calc(var(--font-size-base) * 2.6) !default;
$font-size-h2: calc(var(--font-size-base) * 2.15) !default;
$font-size-h3: calc(var(--font-size-base) * 1.7) !default;
$font-size-h4: calc(var(--font-size-base) * 1.25) !default;
$font-size-h5: var(--font-size-base) !default;
$font-size-h6: calc(var(--font-size-base) * 0.85) !default;

Using Fallback Values

If you aren’t sure if a particular custom property exists, you can provide a default value for a particular property. This can be especially useful if you are creating a component that will be packaged up and imported as part of a library.

Simply pass in the default value as the second argument of the var() function:

/* single fallback */
.button {
    background-color: var(--button-background-color, gray);

You can provide multiple fallbacks by nesting multiple var() functions inside of each other:

/* multiple fallbacks */
.button-primary {
    background-color: var(--primary-button-background-color, var(--button-background-color, gray));

Converting Unitless Values

There may be times when you need to define a custom property as a unitless value and then tack on a unit when actually using that property. This can often be the case when dealing with responsive typography. To accommodate this, simply write a calc() expression where you multiply the custom property value by the unit you wish to add onto it.

Here’s an example of a complex responsive font size calculation using custom properties:

:root {
    /* unitless base font size variables in px */
  --unitless-min-font-size: 15;
  --unitless-max-font-size: 18;

  /* unitless viewport widths in px */
  --unitless-lower-font-range: 460;
  --unitless-upper-font-range: 1200;

  --font-size-difference: calc(var(--unitless-max-font-size) - var(--unitless-min-font-size));
  --font-range-difference: calc(var(--unitless-upper-font-range) - var(--unitless-lower-font-range));
  --viewport-difference: calc(100vw - (var(--unitless-lower-font-range) * 1px));

html {
    font-size: calc((var(--unitless-min-font-size) * 1px) + var(--font-size-difference) * var(--viewport-difference) / var(--font-range-difference));

Redefining Properties in Media Queries

Remember that custom properties can be redefined within media queries. Margins, padding, and grid gutters are particularly good use cases for this. Imagine a condensed view of a grid on mobile, a slightly more spaced out view on tablet, and a view with even more space on desktop. This is possible very simply with custom properties. Instead of redefining the spacing properties on the element, just redefine the custom properties within the media queries.

:root {
    --card-padding: 1rem;

@media (min-width: 600px) {
    :root {
        --card-padding: 1.25rem;

@media (min-width: 1000px) {
    :root {
        --card-padding: 1.5rem;

.card {
    padding: var(--card-padding);

Getting Started with a Custom Property-Based Framework

My new CSS framework Hi-Q lets you get started quickly by providing custom properties that you can customize and then override within your own selectors. Hi-Q is lightweight and provides truly fluid typography that changes in relation to the viewport width.

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